Smart farming is a modern innovation in farm management that employs current information and communication technology to boost agricultural output and quality while decreasing input costs. The Internet of Things (IoT) has altered how we evaluate and regulate agricultural production aspects such as irrigation, plant protection, and fertilizer, and how we study and manage agriculture in general.
Technologies are accessible for today’s farmers:
Detector: humidity, soil, water, light and temperature management
Software: IoT systems that are agnostic to specialized software solutions for specific farm applications.
Cellular LoRa and other types of connectivity.
GPS, satellite and other methods of location.
Autonomous tractors, processing plants and other robotics applications.
Data analytics includes standalone analytics, data pipelines for downstream solutions and so on.
Commercialization of agricultural production via the use of mechanical machinery and implements such as bulldozers, tractors, harvesters, sprayers and fertilizers.
IoT-Based Smart Farming Cycle:
The Internet of Things revolves around data collected from items (“T”) and transmitted via the Internet (“I”). To optimize the agricultural process, IoT devices installed on farms should acquire and process data in a loop, allowing farmers to respond rapidly to emergent problems and changes in environmental elements. The cycle is subsequently completed by smart farming.
Detector gathers information from crops, cattle, the climate, and the soil.
Diagnostics: Data from the detector is delivered to a virtualized IoT platform, which employs pre-programmed decision rules and models to identify the state of the object under investigation and to suggest any requirements.
Decisions: The user and machine training elements of the IoT platform determine whether location-specific therapy is required.
After the end-review user and action, the cycle begins again.
Agricultural Problems and IoT Solutions
Individuals believe that the Internet of Things (IoT) can enhance all sectors of farming, from grain production to forestry.
Precision agriculture is a management strategy that collects, processes, and analyzes temporal, spatial, and individual data, as well as other information, to support management decisions for improved resource use efficiency, productivity, quality, profitability, and sustainability of agricultural production.
Farmers can increase the efficacy of fertilizers and pesticides, or use them selectively, by obtaining precise measurements within a field.
To determine where to spray, real-time views of weed occurrences from video sensors are layered with yield maps, fertilizer maps, and spray maps. It helps farmers not only reduce the number of herbicides they use but also restore the crops they want.
Crop yield optimization:
The following information from an AI-powered and IoT-enabled smart agricultural solution improves crop yields.
Data on soil quality, moisture levels, and weather patterns point to a suitable harvesting approach. Reduce crop damage by advising preventive measures based on weather forecast data. It monitors and adjusts crop irrigation requirements and sustainably utilizes available water resources to boost individual plant productivity.
Soil quality monitoring:
After uploading soil images, the image recognition app uses deep learning to identify potential defects and nutrient deficiencies.
The app also provides users with advice on soil restoration procedures and land preparation ideas.
It also suggests optimal fertilizer doses based on soil tests to meet yield targets..
According to this smart farming revolution, fertilizer and pesticide use will decrease in the future, while overall efficiency will increase. Food traceability will be a fantastic addition to IoT technologies, allowing for maximum food production. As a result, it will be beneficial to the environment, resulting in the most efficient water use, treatment, and input optimization.
By employing a more precise and resource-efficient strategy, smart farming can provide a more productive and sustainable type of agricultural production. New farms will make humanity’s long-held dream a reality. It will feed our growing population, which is expected to reach 9.6 billion by 2050.
Hafiza Zara Saeed
Department of Agronomy, UAF
Dr. Rizwan Maqbool
Assistant Professor, Department of Agronomy, UAF
Bilal Ahmad Khan
College of Agriculture, UOS
Prof. Dr. Muhammad Ather Nadeem
College of Agriculture, UOS
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