A method of grass growing or cultivation of legumes and grass combining or revolving with the tilled and grain crops is known to be ley farming. Ley farming is a method for properly rotating grasses and legumes, grown to fulfil optimum livestock and soil fertility requirements for hay, silage or pasture. Another name for the method is “alternate husbandry”. In ley farming, the field is alternately used for grain or other cash crops for several years and “laid down to ley” i.e. left fallow, used for growing hay or used for pasture for another number of years. After that period, it is again ploughed and used for cash/field crops. It is a temporary, short term (2 to 5 years), mainly seeded grassy and legume pastures. They alternate and blend these crops to achieve the best-desired outcome in their compatibility and growth period.
Non-arable land includes land that is not appropriate for use in cultivation. Land that is cannot be arated. It has one or more disadvantages – the absence of adequate freshwater for irrigation, stony, steepness, unfavourable climate, excessive water with impractical drainage or excessive salts, too low nutrient etc. The diversity of goals and the diversity of resources in the non-arable lands lead to frequent conflicts with consequences for both ecosystems and distributional equity. The management of human activities in non-Arab countries aims to contain and channel conflict and to monitor the environmental impacts of human activities.
Land incompetent of being cultivated for the production of crops can sometimes be converted to arable land. Ley farming plays a good role in the rule of non-arable land making it arable. Today, the nutritional needs for humans are rising quickly, and the feed, vegetables, legumes, fodder as well as fuelwood requirements are also gradually increasing. To fulfil the demands, new generations of farmers are making even greater use of pesticides and fertilizers. The inappropriate use of food goods, be it corn, legumes, fodder, or any crop, of fertilizer, pesticides and other growth improving the fertilization of the soil decreases with little disruption to the property. The significance of legumes as nutritious food and forage crops and for soil restoration has been acknowledged for centuries New agricultural technology can also be implemented in the processing of food to sustain soil fertility and productivity. Now ley farming becomes a vital and complex farming method that covers the soil, plants, and livestock. In this farming, the importance of the grass-legume mix is stressed such that animals are fed and the soil productivity for better yields in arable cultures is increased. Farmers know that after plugging old grasslands the yields of arable crops are the best.
The ‘farm adopt method’ came into vogue after this period of ‘changing cultivation’.When productivity decreased, the land being cultivated was left to regenerate as fallow for some time and was primed for agriculture again. It was normally plugged with fallow for grass to be eliminated, for tilting and soil moisture and nutrients to be preserved. The next step of growth was to incorporate ‘legumes ‘and leys farming instead of fallow. It is well understood that ley is a way to strengthen the soil’s composition, and contributed to the tradition of “crop rotation” to increase the yield by preserving the fertility of the soil. Pastures organized in a special way can prevent deterioration of the structure and condition of the soil.
The development of grass-legume mixtures for fodder to provide the needed quantity of proteins and carbohydrates in animal feed will also provide the foundation for an enhanced animal industry that provides more milk and better-drained crops. Therefore, a cut-off and shipped law crop will help produce more animal food and improve soil fertility. The persistent cultivation of cereals depletes the fertility of the soil. However, legumes differ in nitrogen fixation capability in law farming. The soil is supplemented byLucerne and clovers, while the nitrogen in the soil is low in soybeans and beans cultivated for planting. Even if the pasture has no legumes, the land put on the grass will absorb nitrogen. In a certain time, legumes alone will absorb much more nitrogen.
Benefits of Ley Farming
Improving livestock efficiency
Ley pastures will help enhance animal husbandry, provide high-quality animal food for livestock and fuel animal development rapidly. Legumes have the properties needed to guarantee all these benefits. The consistency of milk has been verified by experimental studies by the law-building industry. Alternating leguminous grass provides more benefits than using standard grass alone. Animals get high assistance during the grassy season so that producers are able to produce higher quality milk. Ley farming also offers absolute freedom to farmers as they don’t have to buy food for their cattle from others, they are confident that they have high-quality livestock food and can produce maximum benefits.
Improvement of nitrogen content for subsequent plantations
Legumes promote soil fertility and grain consistency, as well as improve crop volume. The bulk of the nitrogen in the soil is absorbed by grains, and so the shift in legume crops has a greatly beneficial impact. In mixing legume-grass fields, successful nitrogen fixation is most frequently accomplished. It is well caught in annual herbs. Nitrogen is formed primarily under the root region and then comes up to the surface for contact with crops.
Restoration of soil and organic matter structure
Intense farming takes away many important substances from the soil, and ongoing cultivation reduces soil structures and organic activities and decreases the rate of crop production. Ley cultivation is a powerful organic material method for soil enhancement. Pasturing legumes cannot achieve the desired effect separately; in this case, grass may become an excellent assistant, as it promotes organic matter production.
Controlling the growth of weeds
Crop control is that on those pastures cattle who eat unhealthy plants will graze. This strategy is phenomenally successful every year in the fight against weeds. When it comes to annual plants, the matter becomes more complex.
Preventing deep drainage and erosion
In contrast with traditional farming schemes, the deepening rates of law agriculture have increased. It also prevents cultivation erosion. The root system grows very well on seasonal pastures, having substantial deep sanitation and nutrients. The top layer gets dry and water depletion and usable compounds are avoided during drainage. Shallow land is very fragile so the water does not stay well so that leg pastures may become good instruments for water reduction.
Ley methods are efficient rather than constant cultivation. Ley pastures provide the most important environmental resources for agricultural systems and for society (soil protection, nuts and recycling, soil water preservation, biological control) and the spectrum of outputs (water purification, climate control, conservation of wetlands for wildlife and forage production) as long as their spatial and temporal insert.
To benefit from ecosystem services provided by ley pastures in cropping systems while limiting their disservices, it appears necessary to define a safe operating space for ley pastures in cropping systems. Moving towards this space requires changing plant breeding programs towards multiservice ley pastures, producing knowledge about emerging ways of introducing ley pastures into cropping systems (e.g., living mulch, green manure) and better quantifying the bundles of ecosystem services provided by ley pastures in cropping systems.
As the law’s strength increases, revenues are also raised each year. When land is legalised, cultivation costs are minimal due to lower cultivation activities, as compared to cereal production, where these costs are significant. The people of Balochistan have many years of experience and are using this method, which is profitable, eco-friendly and very critical in achieving success in the arid and infertile land surface. The technology is not unique to the undermined areas and ecosystems; hence it should be implemented everywhere to increase the productivity of the agricultural population to improve its socio-economic conditions.