Wheat is the most widely distributed crop in the world. Wheat is the largest food crop in Pakistan and is cultivated in the largest area. Its importance is obvious because it is 60% of the daily food of the common man in Pakistan. About one-sixth of the world’s total arable land is under wheat. It is the most sought after food grain and its production leads to all crops including rice, maize and potatoes. The per capita consumption is 125 kg which is central to the government’s agricultural policies.
The maximum rising temperature is about 25 25 C, with minimum and maximum temperatures ranging from 3 4 to 4 ° C and 30 ° to 32 ° C, respectively. Wheat is adapted to a wide range of moisture and can be grown in most places where it receives 250 to 1750 mm of rainfall.
Wheat grading is common in spring or winter and traditionally refers to the season during which the crop is grown. Heading of wheat in winter, reddening is delayed until the plants experience cold temperatures (0 ° to 5 ° C) whereas spring wheat, which is commonly planted in spring, (Pakistan) Can be sown in autumn in countries with mild cold.
In Pakistan, wheat is grown in different farming systems, e.g. Cotton wheat, rice-wheat, sugarcane wheat, corn wheat, falling wheat. Mostly cotton wheat and rice-wheat systems are adopted.
Rusty diseases have the ability to disperse and travel long distances by dispersing airborne eggs and can grow rapidly in maximum climatic conditions. Types of rust diseases
- Stripe / yellow rust
- Stem rust
- Leaf rust
Yellow / striped rust
Yellow rust is an important disease and a severe fall. High humidity with low seasonal temperatures has also created an environment conducive to insect infestation. ۔ It occurs in the central and northern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa from mid-February to mid-March. Northern areas may also be rusty in late April. The rust was mainly affecting wheat in Central, North Punjab and KP but in recent years it has started affecting wheat crop in Sindh and South Punjab due to climate and pathogenic adaptation.
Wheat leaf rust
Leaf rust or brown rust is the most common and widespread in the world. This is due to Puccinia triticina. It attacks most leaf blades, and can even attack leaf sheets and glomes under more favourable conditions. Leaf rust is mostly found in Punjab especially in hot areas. It can also occur in central districts like Nowshera, Mardan and Swabi.
Rust on stalks
Cell, black and grain ropes are caused by the fungus Pokenia gramens. All over the world, black rust or stem rust has been one of the most devastating diseases of grain crops, causing famine, and especially economic and political crises. South Asia that started the Green Revolution
Over the years, wheat ropes have emerged as a major threat to production, but nothing has been done to address this threat. The International Center for Maize and Wheat Improvement (CIMMYT) has warned in a recent warning that the spread of yellow rust disease could take on new forms. If the weather is good then it is just as good.
A well-thought-out program for dealing with diseases should be implemented for the permanent management of diseases using a variety of methods, including proper seed protection and selection and fungicide application.
These solutions are valuable tools to consider
Use of fungicides
If sensitive varieties thrive, the use of effective fungicides worldwide at the appropriate growth stage plays an important role in rust management. However, fungicides should be considered a secondary option, not a substitute for resistant varieties. Experts recommend the use of fungicides, at least on patches where the disease is found. They say that Nagios, Tilt and Elixir Super are all equally useful for controlling fungicides.
New variety in seeds
Wheat growers should sow a new seed after one or two years. This is important because repeated sowing causes yellow rust, which can help control plant disease resistance.
Different types of disease prevention
Using approaches such as sustainable resistance, breeders and pathologists have preferred to develop disease-resistant and high-yielding varieties to deal with the risks posed by changes in the rust race. The Department of Agriculture (USDA), CIMMYT and Pakistani scientists have successfully tested and released 35 highly productive rust-resistant wheat varieties that have been found to cause the devastating Yoga-99 wheat fungus disease. Is also capable of avoiding things that have not yet arrived. Pakistan but a neighbouring country like Iran was told.
Disease-free seeds provide a good start to sprouts. Planting and controlling weeds throughout the growing season also helps protect against disease and other pests.
Seed treatment protects seeds and young plants from diseases and other threats to plant health and production. Areas that are usually affected by rust will also require a fuller fungicide treatment to protect the seedlings beyond the growth stage.