Nanobiotechnology combines nanoscale tools and materials with biotechnology to study biological systems and develop medical technologies. By integrating nanotechnology and biotechnology, nanoscale instruments, materials, and systems can be created for disease diagnosis, therapy, and prevention. Nanobiotechnology leverages the unique properties of nanoscale materials, such as their large surface area, high reactivity, and compact size, to develop innovative instruments for biological research and medical applications.
In nanotechnology, single molecules or even atoms are individually manipulated. Building materials atom-by-atom or molecule-by-molecule to produce substances with novel or greatly enhanced qualities. Submicron particles known as nanoparticles are typically spherical, although they can also be rods and plates. The Greek term for a dwarf is where the prefix “nano” comes from. The breadth of six carbon atoms or ten water molecules is approximately one nm. A human hair’s typical width is 7000 nm. Atoms are smaller than a large number of molecules, which include some proteins and have sizes between 1 nm and greater.
According to the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), nanotechnology involves research and development at the atomic, molecular, or macromolecular levels to create structures, devices, and systems with unique properties. Operating at the sub-100 nm scale enables the manipulation of atoms to produce materials with specific characteristics, such as enhanced effectiveness, lighter weight, and increased strength.
It seemed inevitable that nanotechnology would be used in the life sciences given the biological functions of live cells at the nanoscale. As a result, the term “nanobiotechnology” was coined. Recently, the term “nanobiotechnology” was developed to describe the fusion of the two distinct but already existing fields of engineering and molecular biology.
Difference between Nanobiotechnology and Nanotechnology
Nanobiotechnology applies nanotechnology to biological systems, focusing on biomedical and biological applications. Nanotechnology, on the other hand, involves working with materials and devices at the nanoscale across various fields.
What are nanoparticles and their uses?
Nanoparticles are particles with sizes ranging from 1 to 100 nanometers, and their unique properties make them useful in various applications. In medicine and healthcare, nanoparticles are utilized for targeted drug delivery, improved diagnostics, and regenerative medicine. They also find applications in electronics and optics, where they enhance the performance of electronic components and enable the development of nanoscale sensors and high-resolution displays.
Nanoparticles have environmental applications, such as water purification and air filtration, and contribute to more efficient energy generation and storage in fields like fuel cells and batteries. Additionally, they are used in coatings and surface treatments for properties like scratch resistance and antimicrobial effects. Nanoparticles have become increasingly prevalent in consumer products, including cosmetics and textiles. However, it is important to address potential environmental and health concerns through ongoing research and regulation to ensure their safe and responsible use.
Application of Nanoparticle
- Biological component purification and modification
- Pharmaceutical and/or gene delivery
- Elimination of tumours with chemicals or heat
- Optical coding and fluorescent labeling
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement
- Medical diagnosis using biological imaging.
- Modern medication delivery methods.
- Biosensors for toxins or other compounds in the air.
- Medical regeneration
The fields of medicine and health are two of the most fascinating and promising developments in nanotechnology. Among the potential breakthroughs given by nanotechnology are those in medicines, medical imaging and diagnosis, cancer treatment, implantable materials, tissue regeneration, and multifunctional platforms combining many of these modes of action.
Designing novel methods to diagnose various diseases at an early stage using less expensive materials and more advanced equipment than is currently achievable is one of the main objectives of Nanobiotechnology. There is now a lot of study being done in this area. Numerous research teams have shown how to use biomedical uses for metal and semiconductor nanoparticles.
Epidermal growth factor receptors, in particular, can be imaged as cancer markers utilizing 25-nm gold nanoparticles coated with anti-epidermal growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody.
Using recently developed technologies, gene therapy can treat or prevent genetic diseases by repairing the faulty genes that lead to disease growth. It involves delivering repaired genes or replacing incorrect ones. The most typical method of repairing defective genetic factors is the addition of a nonfunctional gene with a healthy gene in a non-specific site within the genome. Potentially, an abnormal gene could take the place of Through selected reverse mutation, a healthy gene can be restored to its original function.
The average diameter of mammalian cells is a few microns, and their organelles are typically in the nanometer size range. Employing nanodevices has the advantage of allowing for better or at least more distinct interactions with the cells as compared to larger devices because they can access the cells more easily.
Measured transfer schemes transport medications to the site of action at a rate determined by the physiological environment, increasing the therapeutic efficacy and safety of pharmaceuticals. This decreases toxicity and harmful effects. Due to co-axial’s ability to produce micro/nanotubes, nanofibers with drugs or proteins embedded in them, and hybrid core-shell nanofibrous materials, it is also employed in the delivery of pharmaceuticals.
Researchers throughout the world are spending more money looking for alternatives because of the population’s increased life expectancy as well as the strict restrictions on the application of xenografts, autologous grafts, and allografts. The goal of this research is to create biological replacements using the principles of cell transplantation and engineering. Following that, these are utilized to safeguard and restore the usual function of previous structures and tissues.
Tissue engineering (TE) uses growth factors, cell treatment, injectable biopolymers, and biomaterials that promote the development of cells to replace or repair missing or damaged tissue. Numerous interactions between cells and their surroundings occur on a nanometric scale.
The majority of the research on nanobiotechnology in food focuses on modifying the packaging with antioxidants, antimicrobials, biosensors and other nanomaterials. Food-derived nanoparticles have been used in the medical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetics industries to enhance the properties of their goods. The use of nanobiotechnology in food packaging has gained attention recently. Attention has been drawn to the potential applications for bio-nanocomposites in food packaging as well as bio-based products like edible and biodegradable nanocomposite films.
Role of Nanobiotechnology in the Food Sector
Several nanobiotechnology applications have arisen from the advancement of nanotechnology in food and agriculture, including the modification of organic compounds and other chemicals, altering the composition of food, edible thin sheets to preserve fruit, high-performance sensors (such as an electronic tongue and nose) and pesticides delivery systems through bioactive nanoencapsulation.
FUTURE GOALS AND CONCERNS OF NANOBIOTECHNOLOGY
- With a wide range of applications, including in health, biomaterials, and energy production, nanobiotechnology may be able to develop a great number of new materials and gadgets.
- As with the introduction of any new technology, nanobiotechnology poses a number of concerns, such as those regarding the toxicity and environmental impact of nanomaterials as well as their possible consequences on world economies.
1.Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan Mazhar 2.Dr. Kamran Saleem 3. Dr. Muhammad Atiq, 4.Muhammad Ehetisham Ul Haq, 5.Shahid Ali chand
- 1,2NIAB,3.AARI, Faisalabad
- 3,5Dept of Plant Pathology University of Agriculture Faisalabad