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Application of fresh manure causes termite attack. Its management strategies

TermiteManure
Termites (Isoptera) are an outsized and numerous cluster of insects, globally consisting of over 2800 species in regarding three hundred genera. The continent has bigger insect diversity than the other continent . among the literature, there’s a definite classification between termites being delineated as ‘pests’ offensive structural timber, rangelands, crops and trees, and also the ecological literature that argues that they supply many system services.The use of manures can enhance the fertility of the soil and the availability of nutrients. It plays a significant role to increase the organic matter of the soil. It can enhance the nutrients (N, P, S) availability in soil. It can minimize the high pH of soil. It plays a vital role to increase soil fertility and very helpful to deal with calcareous soil for better micronutrients uptake. But excessive use of fresh manures can cause the termite attack which is very harmful to crops and reduced crop yield.

Services Provided By Termites

  • Play role in the consumption and mineralization of plant and animal materials.
  • Increasing the variety of vegetation, animals, and microbic communities.
  • Changing the chemical and physical properties of soils.

Role of Termite

The role of termites as soil engineers and processors, particularly as long as they’re often terribly lush represent big biomass, construct intensive networks of galleries and nests. Therefore, they need a big impact on pedogenesis, soil properties and functions. Soils inhabited by termites are higher drained, a lot of stable and have higher levels of soil organic matter. additionally to termites’ impact on ecosystems, need additionally been utilized in a research project, medicine, and technology (e.g., bionics, geology).

Issues Caused by Termite

Despite their ecological role, termites will become a problematic issue for agriculture, forestry, and construction. In agriculture, termites attack a spread of plants from the seed to the mature plant similarly as throughout storage. Seedlings ar either cut just under or higher than the soil surface and frequently, they’re entirely destroyed. Injuries to maturing plants happen either directly once termites enter and consume the crop roots, lodging the total plant or indirectly, as out of action plants become a lot of liable to pathogens.

Providing Substitute Sources of Food

 There’s a typical belief that dead plant materials attract termites to measure trees. this can be a story as a result of fungus-growing termites, which are the foremost serious pests of trees, favour to eat dead stuff. The answer is quite to produce termites with an alternate supply of food like mulching with wood and dry leaves. This could not solely divert termites from live plants however additionally add an organic touch to the soil. Therefore, farmers ought to avoid deed blank, dry soil around seedlings or trees. it’s necessary to depart the maximum amount of plant junk (dry wood, leaves, grass) as doable on the soil surface once getting ready planting sites. Mulching with things like fodder, manure, wadding, wood ash or maize fodder has been shown to dramatically decrease insect attack on live plants. Termites are drawn to the mulch instead of the crop or tree.

Maintaining Soil Organic Matter

The harm by several termites becomes severe on soils with low organic matter content. This can be as a result of such soils don’t contain enough food for termites to measure on and that they resort to feeding on living stuff. Adding compost or well-decomposed manure to the soil and sowing manure legumes and canopy crops helps to extend the organic matter within the soil. However, the attack could increase if there’s an associate abundance of undecomposed organic matter like manure that pulls root-feeding termites. This could additionally increase nesting by ants, which are the worst enemies of termites.

Ensuring Overall Plant Health

Termites seldom attack healthy plants, however, could do therefore following the weakening of plants. something that weakens the plant-like drought, neglect of cultural practices, low soil fertility and lack of essential nutrients, overcrowding and competition, weed infestation, injury by fire and insects or fungal attack will predispose the plant to insect harm.

Intercropping and Mixed Cropping

These are the foremost effective cultural practices employed by small-scale farmers in a geographic region to manage insects that have specific host ranges. However, debatable results are according to termites. as an example, intercropping maize and beans resulted in a significant reduction of tunnelling by insects but did not scale back termite harm on the plants. On the opposite hand, intercropping in biology has been recommended as a method of retentive insect diversity within the crop so as to forestall them from achieving blighter standing. sure grasses ar intercropped with totally different crops in the geographical region to repel termites. intermixture trees with crops can also scale back insect harm to either the crop or tree element. as an example, in Japanese Northern Rhodesia, planting maize between rows of tree stumps reduced insect harm on maize.

Crop Rotation

Planting constant crop on constant land year when year reduces soil fertility and structure. Crops growing in such conditions are going to be weaker and liable to termites. Crop rotation implies that totally different crops are matured on a constant piece of land annually. This will stop termites and build up and additionally facilitate the soil to recover nutrients.

Binish Ali1, Haroon Zaman Khan2 , Asif Iqbal3, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem4  and Muhammad Ashfaq Wahid5

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