Pakistan has a total land area of 88.81 million hectares, of which about 27% is developed and 80% of the developed zone is flooded. Horticulture employs about 66 percent of the population. Pakistan is situated between latitudes 24-37oN and longitudes 61-76oE and has a moderate sub-damp to the sticky atmosphere with mean minimum temperatures of 40°C in winter and maximum temperatures of 38°C in summer.
Because of its geology, height, and climate, Pakistan has a wide range of climatic conditions. There are four distinct seasons that are perceived: The first winter season, which is very cold and lasts from December to February, is followed by the second spring season, which lasts from March to May, the third summer season, which lasts from May to August, and the fourth autumn season, which lasts from September until the first frost of the winter season.
The vast majority of the country’s rangelands are parched, with semi-dry areas characterized by low rainfall, temperature boundaries, and no mugginess. Furthermore, dry spells exist in these areas, which exacerbates the effects of overgrazing, resulting in complete and consistent injury to a few forms of vegetation.
The storm rain shadow is available in the northern parts of Pakistan. The native climate is harsh, bone-dry, and has fluctuating temperatures that are usually lowest in the winter and highest in the summer.
Agro-Ecological Zones of Pakistan
- Indus delta
- Southern water system plain
- Sandy desert
- Northern water system plain
- Barani terrains
- Wet mountains
- Northern dry mountains
- Western dry mountains
- Dry western level
- Suleiman piedmont
1. The Indus delta
It includes the cities of Thatta Badin and Hyderabad. In this district, the annual precipitation ranges from (125-250 mm). Earth and residue are the soil types. The atmosphere is parched tropical coastal in the summer, with sweltering straw hats in the winter. Sugarcane, cotton, and heartbeats are the most important harvests in the Indus delta.
2. Southern water system plain:
Tharparkar, Sanghar, Dadu, Kahirpur, Larkana, Nawabshah, Jaccobadad, Sukar, Shikarpur, Sibi, and Rahim Yar Khan are included in this zone. Annual precipitation (125 mm increments up to 250 mm) and soil composition (sediment topsoil and silty earth) The sub-tropical mainland has a parched atmosphere with hot summers and mild winters. Rice yields in the summer and wheat yields in the winter are the most significant.
3. Sandy desert:
Bahawalnagar, Rahim Yar Khan, Tharparkar, Sanghar, Muzaffargarh, Nawabshah, Mianwali, and Sargodha are areas of the sandy desert. The annual precipitation ranges from 125 to 250 millimeters, and the soil types are topsoil and sandy soil. Summers are incredibly hot, and winters are remarkably cold. Wheat, caster, millet, and guar are the most important ones.
4. Northern water system fields:
Bahawalnagar, Rahimyar Khan, Multan, Vehari, Sahiwal, Lahore, Faisalabad, Jhang, Chiniot, Gujranwala, Sargodha, and Gujrat are among the areas included. Peshawar and Mardan are included as well. Precipitation ranges from 125 to 500 mm, with soil types including topsoil, topsoil soil, and sandy. The atmosphere is bone-dry and semi-bone-dry. Cotton, sugarcane, corn, and wheat are the main crops. Wheat and Berseem are also grown in Peshawar and Mardan.
5. Barani lands:
D.I. Khan, Bannu, Minawali, Talagang, Attock, Abbottabad, Rawalpindi, Chakwal, Jhelum, Gujrat, and Sialkot are among the Barani zone. Yearly precipitation varies from (1000 mm in the northeast to 200 mm in the southwest) soils of various types. The atmosphere at the foot of the mountain is about to get muggy, with hot summers and cold winters, while the southern portion is semi-arid. Maize, wheat (zones of more than 700mm of precipitation), millets, sorghum, gram, and lentils are the most important harvests (where precipitation under 500 mm).
6. Wet mountains:
Rawalpindi, Hazara, and Mansehra are all part of this zone. The soil is silty muds and mud topsoil, with annual precipitation of 1000-3000 mm. Since it contains/includes mountains and heights, the atmosphere is homogeneous. Maize, wheat, and rice are the main crops.
7. Northern Dry Mountain:
It includes the Peshawar and Kohat provinces of Chitral, Dir, Swat, Kalakand, Mohmed Agency, Khyber, and Trible. The annual precipitation ranges from 300 to 1000 mm. The soil types are clayey and profound. Summer has a laid-back vibe, while winter is crisp. Maize, barley, and grains are the main crops.
8. Western dry mountains:
The regions of Kohat, Bannu, North and South Waziristan, Zhob, Lorelai, Kalat, Sibi, Quetta, and Karachi are included in the northern dry mountains. Precipitation ranges on a yearly basis (125mm south-west to 500mm in North) There are two types of soil: profound and topsoil. Summers are mellow, and winters are chilly. Wheat, maize, and foods are the main crops.
9. Dry Western Plateau:
Karachi, Dadu, Mekran, Kharan, Chagai, and Lasbella are among it. Calcareous sediment topsoil is a soil category with a yearly rainfall range of 50-200mm. The climate is arid tropical, with a constant dry season. Wheat, millet, maize, and sorghum are the main crops harvested.
10. Suleiman Piedmont:
D.I Khan, D.G Khan, and Karachi are all included. The annual rainfall is (125-250mm). The weather is hot and dry. Wheat, millet, and gram are the main crops.